Zine data was initially derived from online library catalogs and databases (see below). Information that could not be obtained via online databases was collected in close consultation with librarians and archivists. In some instances, the librarians and archivists I spoke with were generous enough to share exports of their offline database data. In these instances, I was able to analyze additional information that was not readily available to the general public. These exports proved particularly valuable in mapping more complex channels of zine exchange and distribution.
In the case of retail venues, the data collection process was more challenging. Several of the stores that were hubs of zine culture in their day had closed. Others were still in business, but had incomplete historical records, and experienced rapid turnover of stock. In these cases, I have cited my sources in the record itself, and noted when I have made inferences based on the facts I have gathered.